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Articles May-June 2021

Pursuing the Pro Audio Trail

In conversation with Caroline Moss and Sue Gould

PT got in touch with the Pro AVL Asia magazine core team of Editor - Caroline Moss and Sales Director - Sue Gould, who between them boast of over three decades of experience in the pro audio industry..... read more

NJSM Marks a Milestone in the Business of Sound

From Rental Company to manufacturer and innovator, Nixon Johnny has guided and grown NJSM from a two-person company to a fifty-person company, continuing to expand into virtual events with NJSM Virtual Studio..... read more

Tech Savvy Environment for T-Systems

Eyte Technologies installs high-tech AV Solution at T-System’s Experience Center facilitating brand value and delivering superior customer experience..... read more

Conversations with SudeepAudio

Sudeep Audio, one of India’s first pro audio web store selling studio software and equipment online commenced its YouTube Channel, ConverSAtions, in 2011 to share the journey of Indian Sound Engineers..... read more


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Studio & Recording Glossary

In the quest to make life simpler for the ‘beginner’, PSS has endeavoured to regularly bring to its readers a glossary of pro-audio and professional lighting terms. In this issue we bring a comprehensive glossary of Recording Studio terminology.


Absorb: to take in a sound wave rather than passing it through or reflecting it.

Amplifier: Device that increases the level of an electrical signal.

Analogue:Circuitry that uses a continually changing voltage or current to represent a signal. The origin of the term is that the electrical signal can be thought of as being ‘analogous’ to the original signal.

Balance:The relative volume levels of various tracks or instruments.

Backing Track: Pre-recorded accompaniment used by a singer or other musician during a performance that is in addition to or in place of other performers. Sometimes called a performance track or public appearance track.

Baffles: Sound absorbing panels that are used to prevent sound waves from entering or leaving a space.

BIAS:In tape-recorder electronics, an ultrasonic signal that drives the erase head. This signal is also mixed with the audio signal applied to the record head to reduce distortion.

CLEAN:Free of noise, distortion, overhang, leakage.

CLEAR: Easy to hear, easy to differentiate. Reproduced with sufficient high frequencies.

CAPACITOR: Electrical component exhibiting capacitance. Capacitor microphones are often abbreviated to capacitors.

CLIPPING: Severe form of distortion which occurs when a signal attempts to exceed the maximum level which a piece of equipment can handle.

CONSOLE :Alternative term for mixer.

DAW: Abbreviation for digital audio workstation.

DB :An abbreviation for decibel, a measurement ratio that compares signal strengths.

Dropout:A brief loss of audio signal on tape, or a brief loss of data in a digital audio file that can result in an unwanted dip in audio, a crackle or a pop.

Dynamics:Way of describing the relative levels within a piece of music.

EARLY REFLECTIONS :The first sound reflections from walls, floors and ceilings following a sound created in an acoustically reflective environment.

EQUALIZER :A circuit that alters the frequency spectrum of a signal passed through it.

EXPANDER : 1. a signal processor that increases the dynamic range of a signal passed through it. 2. An amplifier whose gain decreases as its input level decreases. When used as a noise gate, an expander reduces the gain of low-level signals to reduce noise between notes.

FILTER :An electronic circuit designed to emphasize or attenuate a specific range of frequencies.

FREQUENCY : The number of cycles per second of a sound wave or an audio signal, measured in hertz (Hz). A low frequency (for example, 100Hz) has a low pitch; a high frequency (for example, 10,000Hz) has a high pitch.

GROUND LOOP : A loop or circuit formed of ground leads. Also refers to the loop formed when unbalanced components are connected together via two ground paths the connectingcable shield and the power ground. Ground loops cause hum and should be avoided.

Head room:The difference in dB between normal operating level and clipping level in an amplifier or audio device. Also describes the difference in dB between the peak levels of a recording and the point at which the signal distorts.

Hz: Short for Hertz, the unit of frequency.

IMPEDANCE : The opposition of a circuit to the flow of alternating current. Impedance is the complex sum of resistance and reactance. Abbreviated as Z.

In Port: A jack on a MIDI device or computer that will accept an incoming data signal.

I/O:An abbreviation for “Input /Output.” In audio, it refers to any device, program or system involving the transferring of electrical/audio signals or data.

JACK : A female or receptacletype connector for audio signals into which a plug is inserted.

KILO : A prefix meaning one thousand. Abbreviated k.

Leakage:The overlap of an instrument’s sound into another instrument’s microphone. Also called bleed or spill.

Live Recording:A recording session where all the musicians are playing at once with no overdubbing.

LOOP : In a sampling program, to play the sustain portion of a sound’s envelope repeatedly.

MIDI:Musical Instrument Digital Interface.

MIXER :Device for combining two or more audio signals.

Microphone: A transducer which converts sound pressure waves into electrical signals.

MULTITRACK :A recording device capable of recording several ‘parallel’ parts or tracks which may then be mixed or re-recorded independently.

NOISE :Unwanted sound, such as hiss from electronics or tape. An audio signal with an irregular, non-periodic waveform.

NON -LINEAR RECORDING :Describes digital recording systems that allow any parts of the recording to be played back in any order with no gaps. Conventional tape is referred to as linear, because the material can only play back in the order in which it was recorded.

Overdubbing:This term comes from the tape deck days but essentially means to record a track while listening to another track. This lets you play a lead over the top of a rhythm track for example. This is done with ease using a digital audio system.

PAD:Resistive circuit for reducing signal level.

POP FILTER :A screen placed on a microphone grille that attenuates or filters out pop disturbances before they strike the microphone diaphragm. Usually made of open-cell plastic foam or silk, a pop filter reduces pop and wind noise.

RECORD:To store an event


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